Morton’s Neuroma is the most common neuroma in the foot. It occurs in the forefoot area (the ball of the foot) at the base of the third and fourth toes. It is sometimes referred to as an intermetatarsal neuroma. “Intermetatarsal” describes its location in the ball of the foot between the metatarsal bones (the bones extending from the toes to the midfoot). A neuroma is a thickening, or enlargement, of the nerve as a result of compression or irritation of the nerve. Compression and irritation creates swelling of the nerve, which can eventually lead to permanent nerve damage.
Morton’s Neuroma is a caused by pressure, abnormal function/motion or an imbalance in the structure of the foot such as flat feet, that causes an abnormal pressure on the structures and the nerves in the ball of the foot. It most commonly affects the nerve that goes to the 2nd 3rd or 4th toes. The squeezing of the nerve from abnormal motion leads to a protective thickening of the sheath that protects the nerve. Symptoms of Morton’s Neuroma often occur during or after activities that cause a sidewards squeezing of the ball of the foot or from pressure such as walking, standing, or playing sport. Since squeezing is a common cause of the condition, shoes such as pointed toes or high heels can often lead to a neuroma. Shoes that are constricting, even tight sneakers, can pinch the nerve between the toes, causing inflammation and pain.
The most common symptom of Morton’s neuroma is localized pain in the interspace between the third and fourth toes. It can be sharp or dull, and is worsened by wearing shoes and by walking. Pain usually is less severe when the foot is not bearing weight.
The diagnosis of interdigital neuroma is usually made by physical examination and review of the patient’s medical history.MRI ad High Definition Ultrasound examination may be useful to confirm the diagnoses however they may still not be 100% reliable. The commonest reason for this is de to natural substances present in between the metatarsal heads and between the fat pad and the intermetatarsal ligament. These natural substances i.e. bursa, fat, capsular thickening and even bony growths, can all be a factor in the impingement process and may need to be surgically cleared.
Non Surgical Treatment
Treaments may include wearing wider shoes to reduce the squeezing force on the foot. Adding a specially made padding to shoes to offload the pressure on the ball of the foot (called a metatarsal dome) Addressing the foot and lower limb biomechanics. This involves looking at foot stability and if needed prescribing an orthotic device to correct your foot position. Anesthetic & Cortisone injections. This is done when the above treatments are insufficient. The trauma is sometimes so great that conservative treatment cannot control the inflammation or cause of the pain. A series of injections are performed to control the inflammation or to temporarily settle the nerve. An ultrasound and cortisone injection can be prescribed by your podiatrist.
Surgery. This is the last and most permanent course of action. This surgery is used as a last resort as it often comes with a series of side affects including the risk of making the pain worse. This surgery can be performed by Orthopedic surgeons as well as Podiatric surgeons.